# Calculate Square in R

Square in R, In this tutorial, will describe how to calculate the values of a data points to the power of two in R.

We are going to cover the following cases,

1) Square of a single value in R

2) Square of Vector in R

3) Square of the data frame in R

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### Example 1:- Single Value Square in R

Square of Single Value, Let’s store the value in x.

x <- 10 x [1] 10

Now we stored value 10 in x, let’s calculate the power of x using the ^ symbol

x^2 [1] 100

In another way, can calculate based on the * symbol

x**2 [1] 100

or

x*x [1] 100

### Example 2:-

Square of a vector, Let’s create a vector and calculate a square of two.

vec <- 1:3 vec [1] 1 2 3

Now, based on the ^ symbol we can calculate the square, Let’s see

vec^2 [1] 1 4 9

Now we can try based on the * symbol

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Instead of the ^ symbol, insert the * symbol

vec * vec [1] 1 4 9

In another case, simply put

vec**2 [1] 1 4 9

### Example 3:-

Square of a data frame, Let’s create a numerical data frame for square calculation

data <- data.frame(x1 = 1:3, x2 = 2:4, x3 = 2) data

x1 x2 x3 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 2

We can apply the same code ^ symbol for square calculation.

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data^2

x1 x2 x3 1 1 4 4 2 4 9 4 3 9 16 4

Let’s calculate based on * symbol

data**2

x1 x2 x3 1 1 4 4 2 4 9 4 3 9 16 4

or

data*data

x1 x2 x3 1 1 4 4 2 4 9 4 3 9 16 4

Let’s try sapply function for square calculation.

sapply(data, function(x) x^2)

x1 x2 x3 [1,] 1 4 4 [2,] 4 9 4 [3,] 9 16 4

Look’s fine, Let me know if you are using any other function for the square calculation.

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