# Category: Methods

## How to Calculate Mahalanobis Distance in R

In multivariate space, the Mahalanobis distance is the distance between two points. It’s frequently used to locate outliers in statistical investigations involving several variables. This tutorial describes how to execute the Mahalanobis distance in...

## How to Calculate Cross-Correlation in R

How to Calculate Cross-Correlation in R, The degree of resemblance between a time series and a lagged version of another time series is measured using cross-correlation. In another way, it can tell us whether...

## How to Calculate Cosine Similarity in R

How to Calculate Cosine Similarity in R, The measure of similarity between two vectors in an inner product space is cosine similarity. The formula for two vectors, like A and B and the Cosine...

## How to Create Pareto Chart in R

Pareto Chart in R, Pareto chart is a combination of a line graph and a bar chart used for visualization. A Pareto graph is a type of chart that displays the frequencies of the different categories with the cumulated frequencies of the categories. How to create...

## How to Calculate Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) in R

How to Calculate MAPE in R, when want to measure the forecasting accuracy of a model the solution is MAPE. MAPE stands for mean absolute percentage error. The mathematical formula to calculate MAPE is:...

## How to Calculate SMAPE in R

How to Calculate SMAPE in R?, SMAPE indicates the symmetric mean absolute percentage error.SMAPE is mainly used to measure the predictive accuracy of models. Mathematical formula is SMAPE = (1/n) * Î£(|forecast â€“ actual|...

## How to Calculate Mean Absolute Error in R

Mean Absolute Error in R, when we do modeling always need to measure the accuracy of the model fit. The mean absolute error (MAE) allows us to measure the accuracy of a given model....

## How to Measure Heteroscedasticity in Regression?

Heteroscedasticity in Regression, one of the easiest ways to measure heteroscedasticity is while using the Breusch-Pagan Test. The test is mainly used to identify if heteroscedasticity is present in a regression analysis. This tutorial...

## How to Make Boxplot in R-Quick Start Guide

Boxplots in R, A boxplot is a plot that displays the five-digit summary of a dataset. The five-digit summary is the lowest value, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the maximum value. We can use a boxplot to easily visualize a set of data. Principal component analysis (PCA)...

## How to Calculate Phi Coefficient in R

Calculate Phi Coefficient in R, first, we need to understand what is Phi Coefficient? It is a measurement of the degree of association between two binary variables. When it’s coming to inference it is similar to the...